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Io Diomedeæ et Amicorum

A strange title for a blog post and a strange wording to find on the front board of a book. It turns up on various Albatross books produced in the period around 1950 when the business was casting around, looking for a way to succeed in the very different publishing conditions after the war.

Albatross had been hugely successful before the war, publishing English language paperbacks in Continental Europe, defeating and effectively taking over, the long established Tauchnitz business. But attempts to revive the brand after the war faltered in the face of difficult market conditions and strong competition from British and American paperbacks, including of course Penguin Books.

In 1948 the business seems to have tried a different approach, having a range of titles bound up in a creamy coloured card binding, almost a sort of false vellum, and probably using existing unsold paperback stock. These were then given a standard Albatross dustwrapper , which in the post-war period showed the name of the local sales partner company, varying by country. All of the copies in this style that I have seen, have a dustwrapper from either Norway, Sweden or Denmark although they may have been sold elsewhere as well.

The front and back boards have an intricate blind stamped frame with on the front the title in the middle, the date 1948 in Roman numerals at the top, and the Latin phrase ‘Io Diomedeæ et Amicorum’ at the bottom. It’s not immediately clear what this means and a quick Internet search brings up a description of a similar book and the suggestion that the phrase translates as ‘I like pie’.

That seems hardly likely, and a more promising search result shows a similar phrase ‘Io Grolierii et Amicorum’, used by Jean Grolier de Servières, a famous bibliophile from the sixteenth century. He had his books bound in a range of fine bindings with this phrase as an inscription on the front board. It translates as ‘ For the use of Jean Grolier and his friends’.

So the Albatross binding it seems is some kind of reference or tribute to Jean Grolier. That’s confirmed by the Wikipedia entry on Grolier, which shows illustrations of some of his books, including strapwork designs very similar to the Albatross cover design. That leaves little doubt that this is a ‘Grolier binding’, albeit very much a poor man’s version of it.

An original Grolier binding

But who might have produced such a binding and why? And if Diomedeæ refers to a person, who is it? In the Greek legends, Diomedes was a warrior in the Trojan War and one of the main characters in the Iliad.

Diomedes, King of Argos

The answer though is far simpler. Albatrosses are seabirds in the family Diomedeidae. The Latin name for the Wandering Albatross is Diomedea Exulans. So ‘Io Diomedeæ et Amicorum’ means ‘For the use of The Albatross and his friends’.

It’s unclear how successful or how widely used this binding was, but Albatross was certainly struggling as a business at this time. Over the next few years it tried various different things in order to survive, including other types of hard binding. In 1951 though it came back to Grolier for a rather more luxurious binding. The copy that I have is on Albatross volume 583 – ‘London belongs to me’ by Norman Collins, but it seems to have been used for other volumes as well, including volume 600.

This time the boards have a rather different strapwork design in colour, but still clearly in the Grolier style, with that same phrase at the bottom and with a central arabesque that refers back to the same source (see the image of a Grolier design above). The book has a glassine jacket, printed on the flaps, and an elaborate design of spine, with more arabesques, the albatross symbol and at the base, the name ‘Torriani’.

The Legatoria Torriani was one the largest Italian bookbinders for most of the twentieth century, based in Milan up until 1960. By 1950 the Albatross company was based in Rome and this book was printed in Verona, so Torriani would have been a natural choice of binder. The owners may well have had an interest in the history of bookbinding and Grolier had spent several years in Milan as an aide to the French Court. While there he had met Aldus Manutius, the founder of the Aldine Press and he had used local bookbinders for many of the books in his library.

Whether the suggestion to use Grolier as the inspiration for a series of Albatross bindings came in the first place from Torriani or from Albatross or from elsewhere, we may never know. But the resulting books now provide rather a nice memorial to both Grolier and Albatross.

English to the end

My first post on ‘The English Library’ published by Heinemann and Balestier in the 1890s looked at the story of the partnership between William Heinemann and Wolcott Balestier and of some of their authors.  But what of the books themselves?

Physically they looked much like the Tauchnitz Editions that they were set up to compete with.  They were of course paperbacks, and of the same size and with the same buff-coloured typographic covers.   Nothing particularly to make them stand out in the shops they were sold in, presumably in most cases alongside Tauchnitz books.  Like the various publishers of the Asher’s series before them, they saw no advantage in distinguishing the look and feel of their books.

EL 73 My Jo, John front wrapper

That’s a common enough strategy today for any business challenging a market leader – often followed for instance by supermarket own-brands.  Make your product look very similar to the market leader’s product in the hope that buyers will believe it’s of the same quality and can be bought with the same confidence.  The other part of such a strategy though is to charge a lower price.  Heinemann and Balestier instead offered volumes of the English Library at 1.60 Marks or 2 Francs, exactly the same as the price of Tauchnitz Editions at the time.

Perhaps they hoped to compete simply on the attraction of the titles and the authors.  Asher’s had signed up George Eliot to launch their series with ‘Middlemarch’, whereas  Heinemann and Balestier chose Kipling to launch the English Library and were aggressively signing up other authors.  They were successful in attracting some popular and high profile authors, but others stayed with Tauchnitz and some even split their works between the two publishers.   Comparing the lists now with the benefit of hindsight, it’s not obvious that either publisher had a more successful publishing programme.

The English Library blurb

The books published by Heinemann and Balestier that have become best known in the 125 years since then, are probably ‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling, ‘Three men in a boat’ by Jerome K. Jerome, and ‘Diary of a nobody’ by George and Weedon Grossmith – certainly all classics, but perhaps a little on the lightweight side rather than literary blockbusters.  Certainly these are books that Tauchnitz would have been disappointed not to publish, and there are relatively few other classics of English Literature that Tauchnitz missed out on throughout its entire history.  Oddly the English Library also included ‘Hedda Gabler’, which was certainly a minor coup, although not one really within the remit of either series.

EL167 Kipling The Jungle Book Title Page and Frontispiece
The best-known and most successful title in The English Library

In comparison though over the period from mid-1891 to the end of 1892, which was the main period of competition between the two series, Tauchnitz published Hardy’s ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, the Sherlock Holmes novel ‘A study in scarlet’ and ‘New Grub Street’ by George Gissing, as well as other works by Hardy, Conan Doyle, Mark Twain, Robert Louis Stevenson and Frances Hodgson Burnett.  There’s no clear winner in terms of either literary quality or popular appeal and the eventual withdrawal of Heinemann and Balestier was probably more to do with financial strength, or with the consequences of Balestier’s death.

Tauchnitz though had the huge advantage of a strong back catalogue of over 2500 volumes to support its new works.  It had continuing sales of many titles by Dickens, Hardy, the Brontë sisters, George Eliot, Henry James, Mark Twain, Wilkie Collins and a host of other writers, most of which had been acquired for a single payment rather than continuing royalties.  This must have been a daunting prospect for any competitor.

In terms of identifying first printings, the English Library books share some of the same complications as Tauchnitz.  Copies surviving in the original wrappers can be dated by reference to the other books listed on the wrappers, but inevitably most surviving copies have been privately bound and the wrappers discarded.  As with Tauchnitz the title page date is not a reliable indicator, often left as the date of first publication even on later reprints.  The only  evidence of reprints may be the presence of later-published titles by the same author listed on the half-title verso.   By this evidence Kipling’s books in the series seem to have been reprinted frequently, and the first volume, ‘The light that failed’ is often seen with other, later titles listed.  Given the relatively short life of the series though, many books may never have been reprinted.

Kipling The light that failed reprint title and half title
Although dated 1891, this copy advertises other volumes published later

One of the oddest features of the series is that as well as turning up in the usual variety of 19th century private bindings, English Library volumes are also found in several of the standard bindings used by Tauchnitz, so that they would have looked almost identical in the bookshops.   The Todd & Bowden bibliography classes various generally ‘art nouveau’ bindings from the 1890s and 1900s as Tauchnitz publisher bindings in series x7.   But as the same bindings exist on English Library volumes, they were presumably produced by a bookbinder independent of Tauchnitz, even if sold directly by the firm.  Tauchnitz did not start its own in-house bindery until 1900.

Jungle Book (EL 167) and 2nd Jungle Book (Tauchnitz)
Copies of Kipling’s ‘The jungle book’ in the English Library and ‘The second jungle book’ in the Tauchnitz Ediiton
EL 1 Kipling The light that failed
Binding x7a on vol. 3026 du Maurier Trilby

Kipling’s ‘The light that failed’ in The English Library, alongside George du Maurier’s ‘Trilby’ in Tauchnitz

Other examples of ‘Tauchnitz style’ bindings on English Library volumes

By the end of 1892 the series was in decline, although it limped on for some time.  It reached volume 199 by 1894, but the last title I have been able to identify is ‘The mystery of the sea’ by Bram Stoker, published as volumes 210 and 211 in 1903.

Even that was not the end, as sometime shortly after this, the rights to the back catalogue seem to have been acquired by the publisher F.A. Brockhaus, also in Leipzig, who had previously been the main wholesale distributor for the series.   Reprints continued to appear under their imprint, sometimes combined with that of Heinemann & Balestier, right through almost until the Second World War, although only  a small number of the titles were reissued.  Most of the Kipling titles were reprinted by Brockhaus, but as time went on, it seems to have been really only ‘The jungle book’ together with ‘Three men in a boat’ that continued to sell.  For these editions it is much easier to date them, as the title page is updated.   With the decline in private bookbinding, they also mostly exist in paperbacks, usually with a bright cover illustrated with poppies.

Three men in a boat Brockhaus 1928

Brockhaus reprints from 1928 (above) and 1921, 1922, 1924 and 1937 (below)

Early Tauchnitz publisher’s bindings

At heart the Tauchnitz Editions were paperbacks.  That’s almost an article of faith for me, despite the fact that a high proportion of them were taken on a visit to the bookbinder.  And because the bound copies survived better, an even higher proportion of the surviving copies are hardbound books, in a bewildering variety of bindings.

But not all Tauchnitz Editions were sold as paperbacks.   Almost from the start, Tauchnitz offered books for sale in bound editions as well as paperback.  The earliest record of these is an announcement in the Börsenblatt für den deutschen Buchhandel on 31 May 1842, that attractively bound copies (schöne Einbände) would be available two weeks after the paperback issue. 

The binding this referred to was almost certainly the binding illustrated below and classified as binding x1 in the Todd & Bowden bibliography of Tauchnitz Editions.  I have several of the early editions in this binding, but nothing to rival the magnificent run of almost all the first 100 volumes that exists in the Pressler Collection, now in the National Library of Scotland.

Publisher binding x1 1

Publisher binding x1 2

Bindings in this style don’t seem to exist much after volume 100, in 1846, although the bibliography records an unusual copy of ‘Bleak House’ bound in this style from around 1852.   There are though many fairly similar bindings that were probably produced by private binders.

The usual rule for recognising that a binding is produced and sold by the publisher, rather than being a private binding attached to a book sold as a paperback, is that it has the publisher’s name on the binding.   Few publishers could resist the temptation to add their own name to the binding, sometimes almost with greater prominence than that of the author, but oddly few private binders thought the name of the publisher of any relevance at all.   It seems unlikely that bindings without the Tauchnitz name on are produced by the firm, although there are certainly a few private bindings that are marked with it, particularly later on, as ‘Tauchnitz Edition’ became almost a generic product name applied to any continental edition in English.

The example below, which shows a first printing of ‘The Pickwick Papers’, volumes 2 and 3 of the series, alongside the later volumes 36 and 50, is an interesting example.  The bindings are clearly very similar, and this applies not only to the spine, but to the boards as well, which are almost identical, as are the endpapers and the marbling of the page edges.  The most significant difference between the two is that the later volumes have the words ‘Tauchnitz Edition’ at the base of the spine.   Is it possible that the first two are an early binding from the publisher, before he developed the vanity to insist on his own name being applied?

Publisher binding x1 3

However the Pressler collection includes a similar copy of ‘The Pickwick Papers’ in the standard publisher binding, with the words ‘Tauchnitz Edition’ at the foot of the spine. It seems unlikely that the firm would have sold two versions, with and without the publisher name.  So my best guess is still that my copy is a private binding, although possibly produced by the same bookbinder, if the Tauchnitz binding work was outsourced, or perhaps by another bookbinder in Leipzig, who worked in a similar style.

Although this early publisher binding was probably not offered for long, other styles followed it and were offered for sale by Tauchnitz at various times, indeed throughout most of their history.  I’ll come back to the other types of binding in later posts.

A visit to the bookbinder

This post, like all my posts about Tauchnitz books, is tagged ‘Vintage paperbacks’.   Yet if you check out the thousands of Tauchnitz volumes for sale on the internet, you’ll find far more copies in hardback than in paperback.   My own collection too probably contains more hardback than paperback books in the main series, although other things being equal, I always give preference to a paperback copy.  I’m not just being perverse.   Tauchnitz editions at heart are paperbacks.  Although the company did sell hardback copies almost from day one, the vast majority were sold in paperback, including most of those now advertised for sale in hardback.   Somewhere along the line, there’s been a visit to the bookbinder.

This was not unusual for Continental Europe at the time.  There’s a typically insular British view that Penguin invented the paperback in 1935 (some Americans even give the credit to Pocket Books in 1939), but paperbacks had been sold in continental Europe for centuries before that, and even in Britain were widespread before 1935.  They had several advantages, including of course price, but for many European purchasers that was not the main consideration.  They were quite willing to pay the cost of binding, but they wanted it done in their own style, not that of the publisher.

Yonge - my young step-mother hardback and paperback

Before and after – an early paperback edition and the same edition in a private binding

So in 19th century Europe, books were often sold in paperback, then taken to a bookbinder.   In some cases whole shelves full of books from a range of different publishers would be bound in a uniform binding.  It must at times have looked stunning.   But the result now is that Tauchnitz editions are found in a huge variety of bindings and a shelf full of them often looks anything but uniform.   And of course it’s the books that were bound, particularly those in expensive bindings, that have survived best.   In contrast, the paperbacks that may once have been far more numerous, have mostly disintegrated and are now difficult to find.   The older the books, the more that’s the case, so the earliest volumes from the 1840s and 1850s are now rarely found in paperback.

Shelf of Tauchnitz books 1860s

Some of the variety of bindings applied to Tauchnitz paperbacks

Or at least they’re rarely found in first printing paperbacks.   Later printings abound for some of the earliest volumes and one of the major advantages for a collector is that paperback copies are usually relatively easy to date, whereas hardback copies can be almost impossible.  Tauchnitz had the unusual habit of leaving the first printing date on the title page even on reprints many years later, and not showing the printing history.   The true printing date is usually on the paperback covers or can be worked out from the information about other publications on the covers or on the half-title verso.  But often bookbinders would discard not only the covers, but the half-title as well, leaving almost no way to establish the date of the book.

In fact often the best clue to the date of a hardback may come from the style of the binding.    There’s a whole art to dating bindings, although complicated by the variation between countries and individual binders, as well as over time.  It’s not unusual though to see a Tauchnitz Edition offered for sale and claiming to be from the mid-19th century, when the most cursory glance at the binding shows it can’t possibly date from then.