Category Archives: Vintage Paperbacks

Baudry’s European Library

There is a long history of English language books published in Continental Europe that goes back way before the launch of the Tauchnitz series in 1841.   One of the most significant series in the period just before Tauchnitz, and one that almost certainly influenced the young Bernhard Tauchnitz, was Baudry’s Collection of Ancient and Modern British Novels, published in Paris from 1831.

Louis-Claude Baudry (or sometimes Claude-Louis Baudry) seems to have been established as a bookseller in Paris from around 1815 and perhaps a little later as a publisher.  Early on he decided to specialise in foreign language publications.  A printing in English of ‘The letters of Junius’, published by Baudry & Lance in Paris in 1819, refers to their business as the ‘English, Italian, Spanish, German and Portuguese Library’.  References to Lance soon disappear and the description of the business changes over the years, sometimes referred to as ‘Baudry’s Foreign Library’, but it eventually settles on ‘Baudry’s European Library’.

Baudry1819 pre-Main series
Baudry & Lance, 1819

A New Year catalogue for 1829 makes clear the specialisation of the business in foreign language books and refers to the availability of “more than 40,000 volumes of the best works in English, Italian, German, Spanish and Portuguese, ancient and modern, new and second-hand”.


It’s unclear how many of these books would have been actually published by Baudry, rather than just sold by the bookshop.  But shortly after this, the firm launched numbered series of books in several European languages, including in English, ‘Baudry’s Collection of Ancient and Modern British Novels and Romances’.  The reference to ‘Romances’ was later dropped, but seems in particular to have been applied to the novels of Walter Scott, which featured heavily in the early titles, accounting for rather more than half of the first 50 volumes, including the first volume, ‘Waverley’.

Scott was still alive when the series started, but died in 1832 and would have received no payment at all for the use of his work.  There were no international copyright agreements at this time, and publication of foreign titles with no payment to the author was standard practice.  It seems ironic that one of the Scott novels published by Baudry was ‘The Pirate’ (volume 22 of the series), given that Baudry was a pirate publisher on a grand scale.

Baudry 39 Caleb Wiliams 2
An early book in the series in original wrappers

After the initial concentration on Walter Scott, the series settled down to cover a wide variety of authors, with Fenimore Cooper, Bulwer Lytton, G.P.R. James and Captain Marryat prominent among them.   Like Tauchnitz after him, Baudry seemed to draw no distinction between British and American authors.  Although the series title referred to British novels, it included numerous volumes by Fenimore Cooper and Washington Irving, as well as other Americans such as Alexander Mackenzie and George Bancroft and a Nova Scotian in Thomas Haliburton.

The Red Rover by Fenimore Cooper – Volume 122 of the series

Like Tauchnitz, and like most continental publishers of the time, Baudry published their books as paperbacks.  But many were then taken to the bookbinder, and as these are generally the copies that survive best, in practice most of the copies found nowadays are hard bound.

A selection of Baudry volumes in various bindings

Also like Tauchnitz, it’s difficult to distinguish first printings.  As far as I can tell, most copies are correctly dated, in the sense that the date on the title page is the actual printing date of that copy.  However with no indication of previous printings, it’s not easy to tell whether earlier printings exist or not.  I’ve been unable to find a full bibliography of the main series, but I do have a rough list of numbers and dates that I’d be happy to share with anyone who’s interested.

There seem to have been around 450 numbered volumes in the series published between 1831 and 1850, of which about 350 appeared in the decade before the arrival of Tauchnitz to the market.  After that the rate of publication of new volumes slows down noticeably, presumably because of the increased competition.

Byrons’ Works vol. 1 – vol. 123 of the series

Baudry had sold its books partly on price, claiming to be far cheaper than the same books sold in Britain. The standard price per volume was 5 Francs, equivalent to around 4 shillings in UK Sterling at the time, for books that might have sold for 12s 6d or more in Britain in hardback.  But Tauchnitz volumes, considerably smaller in terms of the amount of paper used, sold for more like the equivalent of 1s 6d and would have undercut Baudry.

The Pickwick Papers by Dickens – volume 217 of the series

In the end though the business was killed off, not directly by Tauchnitz, but by legislation.  An Anglo-French Copyright treaty was signed in 1851, making it impossible to continue to publish English novels without authorisation. And as Tauchnitz had obtained exclusive authorisation from almost all the leading English novelists, Baudry had little room for manoeuvre.  An International Copyright Act followed in 1852. The series of English language novels came to an end, although Baudry’s European Library continued, publishing mostly books on learning foreign languages, particularly English.

The English language series is the only one that I’ve looked into, but there were parallel series in several other languages, certainly Italian and Spanish, running at much the same time.


Written specially for Penguin

In a recent post on Pelican Books, Penguin’s non-fiction imprint, I looked at the left-wing bias in the early days after their 1937 launch – clear, but undeclared.  But there’s another aspect that deserves looking at, which is their part in moving Penguin from being a pure paperback reprint publisher, towards having a stronger role in commissioning new works.

Before Penguin, paperbacks in the UK were almost always reprints.   It’s a model that is still extensively used today.  Books are published first as expensive hardbacks, and only after sales at the higher and more profitable price have been maximised, does the paperback follow.  Publishers have always been frightened that paperback sales would undermine sales of the more expensive hardbacks.

When Penguin launched in 1935 their list was not only all reprints, but really quite old reprints.  Their first ten books were published on average 12 years after first publication.  That increased to 17 years for the second ten and almost 20 for the third ten.   It was not easy to persuade publishers to release the paperback rights for more recent novels.

These two early Penguins had been first published in the 19th century

So when Pelican launched two years later, it was natural that they should scour the market for reprint rights on non-fiction titles that had been best-sellers 10 years or so earlier.  And for the first few years, that was indeed largely what they published, subject to that bias towards left-wing authors and left-wing content.

Pelican A1 dw

To launch the series though, they wanted something a bit different and they succeeded in persuading George Bernard Shaw, not only to allow a reprint of his ‘The intelligent woman’s guide to Socialism and Capitalism’ (published 9 years earlier), but to extend it by writing two new chapters on Sovietism and Fascism.  As far as I know, these two chapters were the first new writing, not already published elsewhere, that Penguin had ever issued.

The book sold well, although judging by the number of copies surviving in pristine condition, many copies may have remained unread.  That’s perhaps just as well, as Shaw was barely a democrat and certainly no strong opponent of either fascism or sovietism.   He was attracted by, and effectively duped by, what he saw as strong leaders such as Mussolini and Stalin, and saw much to admire in Hitler.  The arguments in his new chapters would not have stiffened many spines in pre-war Britain.

Pelican A6 dw

The book may though have given Penguin a taste for the publication of more new works.  One of the other early Pelicans, ‘Practical Economics’ by G.D.H. Cole (volume A6) was also a new work specially written for the series.  Indeed as this was an entirely new book and the first nine Pelican volumes were issued simultaneously in May 1937, this one rather than Shaw’s, should arguably be considered the first new work to be published by Penguin.

Others followed, although only sporadically at first in the Pelican list.  The focus for new writing moved decisively away from Pelican with the launch of the Penguin Specials in late 1937.  The first book in this series was a reprint, but the vast majority of the volumes, coming thick and fast after that, were new works written specially for the series – books written and published in almost record time as they reacted to fast-moving international events.  In some ways the Penguin Specials were closer to journalism than to traditional book publishing.

Penguin Special S2

By mid-1940 the Penguin Specials had published around 40 completely new works.  In comparison there were only about 10 new works in the Pelican list by this point.  The academics and intellectuals who wrote for Pelican were certainly not used to writing at the speed of journalists.  Nevertheless the combined effect of the two series and others like the King Penguins, was that astonishingly, by 1941 Penguin was publishing more original works than reprints.  There’s a fascinating graph in one issue of Penguin’s Progress that shows how from a standing start in 1937, new works climbed rapidly to around 60 a year, while reprints fell from up to 90 a year, down to more like 50.

Chart of New Works against Reprints From Penguins Progress 6

That’s an amazing change in a few short years and one that goes against most people’s preconceptions.  It led to the surprising position where Penguin was selling hardback rights to other publishers for books that had been first published as paperbacks.  And where Penguin also ended up publishing quite significant numbers of hardbacks itself.  But that’s another story.

Collins sixpenny paperbacks from the pre-Penguin era

I’m still on a bit of a personal mission to show that Penguin revolutionised, but did not invent, the sixpenny paperback.   The success of Penguin was so overwhelming that in retrospect it has obscured what went before and rather created the impression that Penguins appeared out of nowhere.  In practice Penguins evolved from a long history of sixpenny paperbacks going back to Victorian times.  I’ve already written about the Chatto & Windus series that ran from 1893 to the 1920s and about the Hutchinson series that ran roughly from 1925 to 1935.  There are still many more to cover and this post now looks at pre-Penguin sixpenny paperbacks from Collins.

Collins are an interesting example, because for a long time after Penguin’s launch they were perhaps their closest competitor, with the Collins White Circle series.  To see the effect that Penguin had, it’s interesting to compare Collins paperbacks from just before and just after that 1935 watershed.

  Collins Large Format 196 The Golden Hands  White Circle 006

The immediate changes caused by Penguin’s launch are not hard to see.  Almost overnight, paperbacks became smaller, lost their cover illustration (other than a stylised design), gained a dustwrapper and generally became a bit more sober, respectable and middle class.   As I’ve pointed out before, almost all of these changes were an aberration in historical terms and the earlier ones look rather more like modern paperbacks than the later ones do.

Collins had experimented with paperbacks over many years in various different formats and prices.   They published a traditional series of large format 6d paperbacks in the early years of the twentieth century and then after the First World War tried out books in a smaller but chunkier format at ninepence.

   Collins Pre WW1 Large Format 6d No 19 Silas Marner   Collins 9d History of Mr Polly

Collins 6d from around 1905 and a 9d paperback possibly from the 1920s

But then towards the end of the 1920s they launched a more modern looking sixpenny series.  The design clearly owes something to the Hutchinson series of Famous Copyright Novels.  Where the Hutchinson covers were predominantly red, Collins were predominantly green (and incidentally, Hodder & Stoughton’s were yellow).  Where Hutchinson had the title in yellow and the author’s name in white, Collins often had the title in red and the author’s name in yellow, although sometimes the colours switched round.  Significantly in the light of what was to follow, both series moved away from fully pictorial covers to a more restrained design where the picture takes up only part of the cover.

  Collins Large format 232  Famous Copyright Novels 28

Collins on the left, Hutchinson on the right

My guess is that this Collins series started around 1928.  That’s largely based on the fact that several of the early books were first published in hardback around 1924/5, and one seems to be from 1927.   Others went back much further, including books by Walter Scott, Charles Dickens and George Eliot.  Most of the books were romances, adventure stories, crime stories or westerns.

Collins was starting to build a speciality in the fashionable field of crime fiction and this was cemented by the launch of the Collins Crime Club in 1930.  It helped of course that they were the publisher for Agatha Christie, whose books were setting the standard for crime writing.  The Crime Club was followed by the Wild West Club and as the 6d series went on, it was increasingly dominated by these two genres.

As with most pre-Penguin paperbacks, little is recorded of the Collins series, and I don’t know of any collectors, although I would have thought it was fairly collectable.  It almost certainly includes the first paperback printings of many Agatha Christie stories as well as those of many other crime writers.  I have a partial listing , drawn from the covers of the few copies I have, or have seen, which I’d be happy to share, and I’d like to hear of any other lists.

A few of the books seem to have switched away from the standard green covers to other colours, most strikingly a copy I have seen of Agatha Christie’s ‘Partners in Crime’ in red covers and a western from Hugh Pendexter in orange.  As far as I can tell though these were exceptions and the vast majority of books were in green.

Unfortunately the books are undated and I can’t be sure for how long they continued.  But I think the series went on right up to the launch of Penguin in July 1935.  Suddenly then it looked old-fashioned and down-market in comparison to Penguin’s stylish but unillustrated covers.   The inclusion of an Agatha Christie novel, ‘The mysterious affair at Styles’, in Penguin’s first ten was also an arrow aimed directly at the heart of Collins.  This was Christie’s first novel and was (thought to be) available to Penguin because it had been published by the Bodley Head, before her move to Collins.  Problems with the copyright led to it later being withdrawn and replaced by an alternative Christie title, but that didn’t help Collins.

By March 1936, the new Collins series was ready for launch.  The first books in Penguin format were branded only as Crime Club books, but before long the overall ‘White Circle Books’ brand started to be used and it continued to be a significant challenger to Penguin, particularly on Crime and Mystery books, for the next 20 years.

By the 1950s though, Collins were starting to bridle at the self-imposed restrictions on the use of cover art, as indeed Penguin were.   They started to experiment with going back to illustrated covers and a few books were issued that look remarkably like the 1930s predecessors to Penguin (although no longer at sixpence).  Going back to the past was not the answer though.  Cover art would of course return, but in a more modern form.

Chatto and Windus sixpenny paperbacks

It’s time to take another look at one of the many sixpenny paperback series that flourished before Penguin came along in 1935 to revolutionise the market – by selling paperbacks at sixpence.  I come back to this popular misunderstanding of what Penguin’s paperback revolution was all about, because it certainly wasn’t about price.

The last sixpenny series I wrote about was the Hutchinson series of Famous Copyright Novels that ran from around 1925 to 1935.  But the concept goes back much further than that.  Chatto & Windus were selling sixpenny paperbacks from at least 1893 and the firm itself published a celebration of them in 1985 in a colourful book through their Hogarth Press imprint, called ‘Sixpenny Wonderfuls’.  Thanks to a reader of the blog for bringing this to my attention.  The title is intended as a reference and a contrast to the ‘penny dreadfuls’ that sold in vast numbers throughout the Victorian era, and reinforces the point that even sixpence was not a particularly cheap price for a paperback in those days.  These books were by no means at the bottom of the market.

Chatto and Windus sixpenny wonderfuls

Chatto & Windus’ own celebration of their sixpenny paperbacks

Perhaps inevitably ‘Sixpenny Wonderfuls’ focuses more on the colourful and dramatic covers than on the contents of the books, and that in a way is the point here.  These books sold because of their cover illustrations – forty years later Penguins sold because of their lack of cover illustrations.

I don’t know of any complete list of the Chatto and Windus Sixpennies and I don’t have any collection of them, so the illustrations here come from the Chatto book.   It sounds though as if  the firm itself may have some quite detailed records, covering not only titles but printing numbers.   They note that one of the first titles, ‘The cloister and the hearth’ by Charles Reade, had an initial print run of 50,000 in 1893 and went on to sell 380,000 copies in its sixpenny edition over the next 15 years.  And that was a book that was already over 30 years old at the start of the series.  You’ll be lucky to find a single copy of it today though.  The internet is awash with hardback copies, but those hundreds of thousands of paperbacks have disappeared almost without trace.

There is probably even less chance though of finding a copy of ‘Antonina’ by Wilkie Collins, also published in 1893 in the series, but selling only 1,240 copies according to Chatto’s records.  Clearly it was a hit-and-miss business.

Nevertheless the series seems to have prospered and I would guess it covered perhaps a couple of hundred titles over its 30 year history.  It survived the First World War, although with few new titles being added, and in the post-war years it found it difficult to generate the levels of sales achieved pre-war.  It’s unclear exactly when the series ended.  Copies may have continued to be sold even into the early 1930s, but in terms of new titles it probably ended in the early 1920s.

The idea of sixpenny paperbacks certainly didn’t end then.  New series from Hutchinson and from Collins were only getting going at that point, and Penguins were not even a gleam in Allen Lane’s eye, but the fashion for Chatto and Windus’ stories and their dramatic cover illustrations had come to an end.

The series was dominated by adventure stories and relatively light romances.  Books by Ouida and B.M. Croker sold well, as did those by Walter Besant and Charles Reade.  Their names may not be widely recognised today, but many of the other authors would be.  The series contained books by Wilkie Collins, Thomas Hardy, Arthur Conan Doyle, Mark Twain, Robert Louis Stevenson, Emile Zola and Arnold Bennett.  For comparison, it’s worth remembering that despite the reputation for quality, most of the authors and titles of the first couple of hundred Penguins are now justly forgotten.  Amongst the few still remembered are Conan Doyle and Bennett.

Unser Kampf in Australia

This is the story of a very unusual Penguin from the other side of the world.

Australia Penguin S54 Unser Kampf

At first sight it’s very clearly a Penguin.  The broad bands of colour and the Penguin symbol make it instantly recognisable, even though the bands are red rather than the more familiar orange.   The more striped effect at the top, and the text-heavy cover, mark it out as a Penguin Special, one of the series of topical books on current affairs that sold millions in the run-up to, and the early years of, the Second World War.

But after that first impression, other things don’t seem quite right.  Firstly it’s the wrong size.  Basically all Penguins at that time (this was printed in 1940) were of a standard size – the size that Penguin had adopted from the European series of Albatross Books, and which in turn had been copied by almost all other British paperback publishers.  This one is larger, roughly 14 cm by 22 cm.  It’s also made up of a single gathering, stapled in the middle, so has a rounded spine, unlike the flatter spine of almost all other Penguins.

Then the cover has been printed in three colours – black, blue and red.  Almost all other Penguin covers at the time were printed in two colours, typically orange and black.  This one has an extra colour to allow the British and Australian flags to appear, and that also seems to account for why it’s red rather than orange.  Interestingly it’s not the current Australian flag.  The version then in use was the Australian Red Ensign, which changed to blue only in 1954.  It’s also noteworthy that the penguin logo is printed in blue rather than black.

Australia Penguin S54 A blue Penguin

This is an Australian printing of course, but that in itself is not particularly unusual.  Over 70 UK Penguins were reprinted in Australia during the war years, given the difficulty in exporting copies from the UK.  They were published through a local company, Lothian Publishing Company Pty. Ltd., whose name generally appears on the title page, below that of Penguin Books.  But this book has no mention of Lothian, crediting only a local printer in Melbourne.

Lothian’s own list of the Penguin books they published in Australia does though include it and shows it as the very first such book in August 1940, almost two years before any others followed.  Why did this particular book justify such an unusual step?

NPG x2511; Sir Richard Thomas Dyke Acland, 15th Bt by Howard Coster

The author, Sir Richard Acland, was a British Liberal Party MP (and a 15th generation baronet), who had been stridently against the policy of appeasement being followed by the UK Governments under Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain.  In 1938 he had engineered a famous by-election in Bridgwater, a Conservative-held constituency neighbouring his own in Barnstaple, and persuaded a journalist, Vernon Bartlett, to stand as an ‘Independent Progressive’ anti-appeasement candidate.  Both the Liberal and Labour parties agreed to stand down in favour of Bartlett, leaving him a clear run against a Conservative candidate in the election, which he won by a relatively small majority.

Penguin Special S54

Acland’s book, ‘Unser Kampf’ was written after the outbreak of war and published as a Penguin Special in the UK in February 1940 – volume S54 of the series.  It is a plan for a new world order to be established after the war, and almost a manifesto for a new political movement.  Acland went on to be one of the main founders of the Common Wealth Party in 1942, with J.B. Priestley and Tom Wintringham amongst others.  He stood for the new party in the 1945 election, but it fared badly and he lost his seat, later defecting to Labour and being elected as a Labour MP.

Clearly his book was a significant contribution to the debate at a time of high interest in public affairs. but was it any more than that?  It was not one of the Penguin Specials chosen for reprinting in the US (although interestingly one of Tom Wintringham’s books was).  Did it then have any special relevance in Australia, more than any of the other Penguin Specials, several of which dealt with similar subjects?  I’m not convinced that it did, although the Preface to the Australian Edition suggests that “To enable the demand to be met, it has been found necessary to reprint in Australia”.

Australia Penguin S54 preface

It is unclear who wrote this rather evangelical preface.  It refers to both the author and the English publishers (Penguin Books) in the third party, and thanks them for agreeing to no royalties or copyright fees.  So presumably somebody else wrote it and it reads as if written by a supporter of Acland, rather than by a publisher.  I suspect that it was local supporters of Acland, or his ideas, who promoted the idea of reprinting it in Australia, and possibly approached Lothian with the suggestion.  Could that in turn have been what sparked later negotiations between Lothian and Penguin about reprinting other titles?

It does seem to have been reasonably successful, with 10,000 copies in the first printing of August 1940, followed by a second printing of a further 10,000 copies in the same month.  Enough to interest Lothian in extending the collaboration with Penguin?

There are still other oddities though with this very odd book.  The UK edition is titled ‘Unser Kampf’ with ‘Our struggle’ as a sub-title, while the Australian edition reverses this.  Were Australians thought to be even more uncomfortable with foreign languages than the British?  Or less familiar with the title of Hitler’s ‘Mein Kampf’, which it echoes?  It seems just a little condescending.

And despite the changes to the front cover, the back cover just copies the UK back cover other than to add ‘Printed in Australia’.  So it has a list of the ‘Latest Specials’, most if not all of which, would not have been available in Australia.

Australia Penguin S54 rear cover

Acknowledgements: Some of the information about Australian printings in this post, comes from an article written by Chris Barling in the Penguin Collector’s Society newsletter for May 1987.  For more about the Bridgwater by-election of 1938, see

The hurt of losing Middlemarch

The fact that ‘Middlemarch’ never appeared in the Tauchnitz Edition, was a matter of lasting regret to its founder, Bernhard Tauchnitz.  His series contained almost every other major work of English literature published in his lifetime and beyond, including all of George Eliot’s other novels, but not Middlemarch.  Eliot was instead induced to publish a Continental Edition of this novel in the new ‘Asher’s Collection of English Authors’.

I’ve already written about this in previous posts.  The story of George Eliot’s publications in Tauchnitz is covered here (Part 1 and Part 2) and the story of Asher’s Collection in these posts (Part 1 and Part 2).  But I’ve recently come across other evidence that shows just how sensitive Tauchnitz was about the loss of Middlemarch.

Asher 1 Middlemarch Half title

After Eliot’s death in December 1880, her husband John Cross edited ‘George Eliot’s Life as related in her letters and journals’, published in the UK in 1885 and more or less simultaneously in the Tauchnitz Edition.  Comparison of the texts of the two editions shows several small differences in the sections relating to the continental publication of Middlemarch.

tauchnitz 2318 title page

I have noted before that Tauchnitz adds a footnote at one point.  On 8th May 1872, in reference to Middlemarch, Eliot writes in her journal ‘Cohn is publishing an English edition in Germany’ (Albert Cohn was the publisher of Asher’s Collection).  In the Tauchnitz version only, there is a footnote saying ‘ The author was subsequently induced to publish”Daniel Deronda” and her succeeding works again in the Tauchnitz Edition.  Baron Tauchnitz paid £250 for “Daniel Deronda”.

tauchnitz 2321 footnote

Footnote in volume 2321 of the Tauchnitz Edition

Then on 25th February 1873, Eliot writes ‘Cohn of Berlin, has written to ask us to allow him to reprint “The Spanish Gypsy” for £50, and we have consented’ (The poem appeared in Asher’s Collection in 1874, under the title ‘The legend of Jubal and other poems’).  Again Tauchnitz cannot resist adding the note ‘See foot-note on page 71’.

Tauchnitz it seems is prepared to allow reference to Cohn (spelled Kohn in the UK edition) provided a footnote is added, but direct references to Asher’s Collection posed more of a problem.  On 24th March 1872, Eliot writes (in a letter to her UK publisher, John Blackwood) ‘I fancy we have done a good turn to English authors generally by setting off Asher’s series, for we have heard that Tauchnitz has raised his offers. There is another way in which benefit might come that would be still more desirable—namely, to make him more careful in his selections of books for reprint. But I fear that this effect is not so certain. You see Franz Duncker, who publishes the German translation of “Middlemarch,” has also begun an English series. This is really worth while, for the Germans are excellent readers of our books.’  The only bit of this whole section that survives in the Tauchnitz Edition is the phrase ‘The Germans are excellent readers of our books’.

tauchnitz 2321 comparative excerpt from uk edition

Extract from the UK edition

On 4th October 1872, she writes again to Blackwood, ‘Asher’s cheap editions are visible everywhere by the side of Tauchnitz, but the outside is not, I think, quite equally recommendable and recommending.’   This might be thought more complimentary to Tauchnitz, but again the sentence just disappears in the Tauchnitz Edition.   References to Asher in the Summary of Chapter 16 and in the index are also censored.  The name of Asher was it seems not to be mentioned in polite society.  Were these changes approved by John Cross, or was Tauchnitz censoring the books without the editor’s approval?

It is worth noting that by this point in 1885, Asher’s Collection was not in any sense a serious competitor to Tauchnitz.  Just two volumes were added to the series in 1885 and only a handful more in the next few years, before it disappeared completely.  Tauchnitz had recovered for his series, not only George Eliot, but almost all of the authors who had been seduced away.   George Eliot had died and Asher’s Collection had been vanquished, but clearly the loss of Middlemarch 13 years earlier, still rankled with him.  Perhaps even more, it was the fact that he had had to pay so highly to bring Eliot back.  He was still feeling hard done by about his £250.  Although as ‘Daniel Deronda’ and Eliot’s other works in Tauchnitz continued to sell well for many years to come, it seems likely that he more than recovered his investment.

Studying with Tauchnitz – Part 2

Part 1 of this topic looked at the early one-off publications by Tauchnitz for school use and for home students of English.  They were not really a serious attempt to access what was potentially a substantial market.  From 1886 though, Tauchnitz got serious.  The Students’ Series for School, College and Home took classic English texts, mostly already published in the main Tauchnitz series and gave them to a German academic.  Their job was to take an excerpt or abridge a novel, add footnotes for German students and write an introduction in German.

Tauchnitz Students Series 1

The first printing of this book would not have said ‘No.1’ on the cover. This is a reprint from around 1904..

Fifteen volumes of the new series were issued in 1886, starting with ‘The Lady of Lyons’ by Edward Bulwer Lytton, who had already had the honour of opening the Tauchnitz Collection of British Authors 44 years earlier.  He was quickly followed in this new series by works from George Eliot, Alfred Lord Tennyson, W.M. Thackeray, Thomas Carlyle and Sir Walter Scott – something of a parade of the great and the good from the first 40 years of Tauchnitz history, although Dickens had to wait until volumes 9 and 10.

The books were issued in two formats, as paperbacks and in a hard binding with plain paper boards and a red fabric spine.  Few people would pay to have the paperbacks privately bound, and few of them have survived in the original wrappers, so almost all surviving copies are in the standard hard binding. It generally cost only 10 pfennigs more than the paperback edition anyway (for instance 0.80 Marks rather than 0.70 Marks), so it seems likely that this was how most of them were sold.

Tauchnitz Students Series 2

A paperback copy of volume 2, but again a reprint, probably from around 1900.

First printings of the early editions are rare.  Todd & Bowden, the Tauchnitz bibliographers,  found an 1886 copy of only three of the first 15 titles.  They were unable to find any copy at all of four of these books and of the overall series there were 21 of the 41 volumes for which they could not locate a single copy.   This probably exaggerates the rarity though, as most libraries have limited interest in schoolbooks and tend not to collect them.  My own collection now includes copies of 33 of the 41 titles, including many of those previously unlocated.

But early printings are still difficult to find.   I now have what I believe to be first printings of six of the first 15 titles.  The key is that they are dated 1886 on the back cover and have no volume number on the front.  As more generally with Tauchnitz, even reprints from many years later still have the original publication date on the title page and the front cover, so we have to look for clues elsewhere.   Early issues have the printing date on the back cover.  For later issues, the approximate date can be established by checking what other titles are advertised, or often by checking the edition number of the English-German dictionary regularly advertised on the back cover.  New editions of the dictionary were regularly issued, so for instance an advert for the 39th edition of the dictionary dates the book to roughly 1904 to 1907, when the 40th edition was published.

A first printing of volume 4

The example of volume 4 above is typical.  It is dated March 1886 on the rear and unnumbered on the front.  It lists only the first eight volumes as already available and a further six titles as in course of preparation.  Two of these six volumes did appear in due course substantially as promised, although ‘Sketches’ by Dickens split into two volumes.  Of the other four, one never appeared, and three were published under other titles and/or with different academics supplying the footnotes.

After the initial rush, production of new titles started to slow down.  There were six volumes added in 1887, another five in 1888 and a total of 11 between 1889 and 1893.  After that it was only occasional titles, one in 1896, one in 1900, one in 1902 and bizarrely a final title during the First World War in 1917.  Reprints from around the turn of the century seem to be relatively plentiful though, so the existing titles must have been selling well enough.  Perhaps there was simply no need for lots of different titles.  After all few people remain a student for long enough to get through more than 41 books, before either giving up, or graduating to full novels.

From volume 38 onwards in 1896 there was a bit of a change of direction.   Instead of adding footnotes under the relevant text, comments were provided in a separate booklet along with an English-German dictionary of the most difficult words.  The ‘Anmerkungen und Worterbuch’ were sold separately, generally at a price of around 40 pfennigs.  Dictionaries were also compiled for many of the earlier titles that were still on sale and again sold separately from the books at prices ranging from 20 pfennigs to 1 Mark.

Tauchnitz Students Series 38 Notes and Dictionary

The series continued to sell  into the early 1920s, but eventually, after 40 years, Tauchnitz seems to have come to the conclusion that it needed a refresh.  A new series, the Tauchnitz Students’ Series Neue Folge, launched in 1926.  That may some time be the subject of Part 3, and if I ever get round to it, there’s a Part 4 waiting in the wings as well.

Students Series spines 1

A collection of the Tauchnitz Students’ Series

Studying with Tauchnitz – Part 1

As a German publisher selling books in English, Bernhard Tauchnitz had to find a market wherever he could.   Of course he wanted to sell to German nationals, but there were only a limited number of those who could read a whole novel in English.   He could not sell in Britain or the British Empire for copyright reasons, but he spread out to sell across the whole of the European Continent and beyond.  By selling his books in railway station bookstalls and specialist expatriate bookshops, he was able to target British and American expatriates and travellers as well.  That made a large enough market for a successful business.

But there was still another sizeable potential market, if he could reach it.  Those who were learning English in schools, in universities or as individual students at home.  Producing basic school text-books was a specialist market, but there were lots of students who had got past the basics, but would still find it difficult to read a full length novel in English.  Given the access Tauchnitz had to novels in English and to British authors, could he help to bridge the gap?

The first attempt was an anthology issued in 1844 called ‘Selections from British Authors in Prose and Poetry.  A class-book for the use of schools.’ by Edward Moriarty.  That’s according to the English language title page, although oddly the second title page, in German, refers to the book being for both school and personal use.  The book contains a series of prose extracts, following directly on from each other as chapters, with author names at the end of each chapter and then followed by 76 poems.

Tauchnitz A2 Title Page

Most of the authors were safely dead and out of copyright, but there were a small number still alive in 1844, which raises the question of whether the use of their work was authorised.  There was no international copyright convention in 1844, but by that time Tauchnitz was obtaining authorisation and making payment for all works in the main series.  There is no indication here that the book is authorised, even though it contains extracts from the works of Marryat, Bulwer and Dickens among others, writers who had given Tauchnitz early authorisation to publish editions of their novels.

The anthology remained in print for many years, but it was another three years before there was any follow-up and then it was in a rather different direction.   A special Schools Edition of ‘A Christmas Carol’ by Charles Dickens appeared in 1847, three to four years after the first publication of the story in December 1843.  Again the question of authorisation is not entirely clear.   Dickens had certainly given his authorisation for the initial publication by Tauchnitz of ‘A Christmas Carol’ and it appeared with the wording ‘Edition sanctioned by the Author’ on the title page.  In 1846 the first copyright agreements were put in place between Britain, Prussia and Saxony and later editions appeared with the wording ‘Copyright Edition’.   But the Schools Edition has no mention of either authorisation or copyright.  Was this an oversight, or did Tauchnitz just assume there was no need for any further payment to Dickens, given his existing rights?

A Christmas Carol Schools Edition title page

I’ve written a longer post on the Schools Edition of ‘A Christmas Carol’, which can be found here, so I won’t repeat it all, but the key change was to add at the end an English-German dictionary containing the more difficult words used in the book.  The story itself takes up only 78 pages, while the dictionary takes up 91, so it’s fairly comprehensive.  As it translates only into German, the book was presumably for sale only in German-speaking countries, a pattern that was to be followed for the next 90 years.  Tauchnitz never seems to have made any attempt to sell to schools or students in France, Italy or other countries.

After ‘A Christmas Carol’, it was another 6 years before the next edition specifically for students followed, and it was again to Charles Dickens that Tauchnitz turned.  ‘A Child’s History of England’ by Dickens was published in a standard edition by Tauchnitz in 1853, although outside the main series.  At more or less the same time it appeared in a special annotated edition, with a substantial dictionary attached to the second volume, but this time also with footnotes, explaining points of English grammar or style.

Sample footnote

A sample footnote, with German text in Gothic script.

This was now more or less the format that would eventually be developed into the Tauchnitz Students’ Editions, although they were still more than 30 years away.  Oddly there is again no mention of authorisation or copyright, this time on either the annotated edition or the standard edition, although it’s almost impossible to believe that Tauchnitz had not obtained and paid for the European copyright.

  Tauchnitz A12 Title Page  Tauchnitz A13 Title Page

So far then, we have a first attempt at a Schools Edition in 1844, another one three years later in 1847, then a gap of 6 years to 1853.  So it seems about right that it was then 10 years before Tauchnitz tried again.  A Schools Edition of ‘Tom Brown’s Schooldays’ appeared in 1863, this time with an introduction and glossary, although I have not seen a copy.  And the gaps continued to get larger.  The next attempt did not come for another 23 years.  And finally this time it was a more serious attempt to develop the market.  The first volume of the Tauchnitz Students’ Series for School, College and Home appeared in 1886.  I’ll leave the story of those volumes for Part 2.


Keep the blue flag flying

Pelican Books, the non-fiction imprint of Penguin, launched in 1937 and brought books on a huge range of serious topics within the range of ordinary people, publishing them at the standard Penguin price of sixpence.  They sold in their hundreds of thousands, bringing education to the masses.  It was conceived as an educational series.  It was no accident that one of the key editors behind Pelican was W.E. Williams, also closely involved in the Workers Educational Association.

But that’s also a clue to another aspect of Pelican Books that was perhaps less evident.  Despite the blue covers of the books, this for at least the first couple of years was very definitely a left wing publisher.  Take a look at the first few volumes.  Volumes 1 and 2 are ‘The intelligent woman’s guide to Socialism, Capitalism, Sovietism and Fascism’ by Bernard Shaw.  The title manages in just a few words to be both patronising and sexist, but also essentially misleading.  This is no even-handed review of political philosophies.   Shaw was a Fabian socialist and this is a rationalisation of his political beliefs.

Pelican A3

Volume 3 is a very odd book to be included in the first few volumes of what is ostensibly a non-fiction series.  ‘Last and First Men’ by Olaf Stapledon is a science fiction novel, described as ‘a story of the near and far future’.  It is certainly fiction and would have been more appropriately published in the main Penguin series rather than Pelican.  For what it’s worth though, the author was undoubtedly left wing in his political beliefs, and during the war a supporter of the socialist Common Wealth party.

Volume 4 was a book on archaeology by Sir Leonard Woolley and probably outside the left / right spectrum, but volume 5 (‘A short history of the world’ by H.G. Wells) and volume 6 (‘Practical Economics’ by G.D.H. Cole) were both the work of prominent socialists.  Volume 7 (‘Essays in Popular Science’ by Julian Huxley) is again hard to categorise as left or right wing, but there is no doubt about volume 8.  ‘The floating republic’ by Bonamy Dobrée & G.E. Manwaring is the story of a naval mutiny and effectively an early example of trade union activism.  It may be presented as the non-political work of academic historians, but it is also a revising of history from a socialist perspective.

Pelican A8 dw

Volume 9 is the first of several volumes of a ‘History of the English people’ by Élie Halévy, surprisingly the work of a Frenchman.   Halévy was probably better described as a Liberal than as a Socialist, but he had left wing sympathies and he lectured and wrote on the history of socialism.   Volume 10 is then a book on astrophysics by Sir James Jeans.

This general pattern of mixing non-political volumes with volumes on a range of subjects by left wing authors, continued for a considerable time.   Over the next year or two the series included works by a long list of prominent socialists including J.B.S. Haldane, Harold Laski, R.H. Tawney, Beatrice Webb and G.D.H. Cole, and communists such as J.G. Crowther and Petr Kropotkin.   There were also several works by members of the Bloomsbury Group, including both Virginia and Leonard Woolf, Roger Fry and Clive Bell, all generally left / liberal if not socialist in their politics.  There are also plenty of non-political authors, but I struggle to find a single author in the first 50 volumes who could be clearly described as right wing.  What is striking to me is that these are not necessarily books about politics, economics or history – even for books about science or art, the series seems to have searched out left-wing authors.

There were of course other left wing publishers and left wing series.  The Left Book Club published by Gollancz springs to mind and was a successful series at much the same time as Pelican.  The difference though is that buyers of the Left Book Club were in no doubt about what they were buying.  Pelican’s position was much less explicit.  In buying a Pelican you were buying into a certain culture of popular education, but I’m not sure it was clear that you were buying into a left wing philosophy.

Krishna Menon

V.K. Krishna Menon

The key person behind the political positioning of Pelican Books was probably not Allen Lane, the owner of Penguin, but V.K. Krishna Menon, whom Lane appointed as overall Editor of the series.  In appointing him though, Lane must have known what he was getting.  Krishna Menon had worked as an editor at Bodley Head, the Lane family firm, and he had been a Labour councillor in St Pancras since 1934.   He was being considered as a Labour parliamentary candidate, but this fell through because of suspicions that he was actually a Communist.   He was a close friend of Nehru, a passionate advocate of Indian independence and a fierce opponent of the British Empire, to the extent that there were doubts about his loyalty to Britain during the war years.

Wiiliam Emrys Williams

William Emrys (Bill) Williams

He did not of course have total freedom to develop the Pelican list as he chose.  He was supported by three Advisory Editors, although it seems doubtful that they were much of a check on his left wing tendencies.  W.E. Williams, mentioned at the start of this post, was one of them.  He was primarily an educationalist, but certainly also a socialist.  As well as his role with the Workers Educational Association, he went on to head up the Army Bureau of Current Affairs, which was later accused of being so effective at spreading left wing opinion in the armed forces that it influenced the result of the 1945 election.

HL Beales

Hugh Lancelot Beales

Then there was H.L. Beales, a historian and another socialist.  In this context it is interesting to note a comment in the introduction by J.M. Winter to a much later collection of essays by R.H. Tawney: ‘That … working-class culture is a central part of European historical writing today is in part because of Tawney’s work and example, and that of a group of his contemporaries among whom G.D.H. Cole, H.L. Beales, the Webbs and the Hammonds are the most prominent.’   Every one of those mentioned was involved with Pelican in those early days.   It seems fair to assume that Beales was influential on the inclusion of Tawney, Cole and Beatrice Webb as well as J.L. (John) and Barbara Hammond in the series.

The third advisory editor at the start of Pelican was Lancelot Hogben, a biologist, who later had a rather odd book of his own published by Pelican. ‘Interglossa’, published in 1943, was a plan for a new world language to be part of a new world order after the war.  He was also a socialist.   So the overall editor of the series was a socialist, seen at the time as perhaps a bit of a firebrand, and all three of the advisory editors were known socialists.   Is it surprising that they kept the red flag flying in its Pelican blue camouflage?

It didn’t last of course.  The relationship between Krishna Menon and Lane deteriorated and ended with Krishna Menon leaving at the end of 1938.   The last volume to carry his name as editor was volume 33, although it’s probably fair to see his influence in terms of the choice of titles and authors at least across the first 50 volumes.

Victoria and Albert in Tauchnitz Editions

Although it was based in Germany, sold books only outside Britain and the British Empire, and continued right through to the Second World War, the Tauchnitz Edition was in many ways a Victorian series.  Bernhard Tauchnitz was just three years older than Victoria and founded his firm in 1837, the year she came to the throne.  By the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, the Tauchnitz ‘Collection of British Authors’ had reached almost 3500 volumes.  Although it was to continue for another 40 years, the high point of the series came in Victoria’s reign and it was essentially on Victorian literature that it built its reputation.

Tauchnitz was undoubtedly an admirer of Victoria and of Victorian Britain and he cultivated links with the Royal Family as assiduously as he cultivated links with all his British Authors.  Perhaps surprisingly, both Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert, were part of that select group, his British Authors.  It’s true that neither of them had  much of a reputation for literary prowess, but then that was probably not the criterion for their inclusion in the series.

Tauchnitz 850 Frontispiece

Portrait of Prince Albert as Frontispiece to Tauchnitz volume 850

It helped that Albert was German (and Victoria, his cousin, was at least half-German).  Indeed arguably Prince Albert and Bernhard Tauchnitz were the two most prominent Anglophile Germans of the Victorian era, building their respective businesses on the closeness of their links with Britain.  It is said that the hereditary Baronage granted to Tauchnitz  in 1860, was arranged indirectly by Prince Albert, who would surely have been well aware of the impact made by Tauchnitz in continental Europe.  The Baronage was granted by Ernst, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who was Prince Albert’s brother.

Albert died though in 1861, leaving Victoria to 40 years of widowhood and leaving as a literary legacy only 20 years of formal speeches.   ‘The principal speeches and addresses of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort’ were published in the UK in 1862 by John Murray, along with an exceptionally fawning introduction.  The Tauchnitz Edition followed in 1866 as volume 850 of the series, with the same introduction and frontispiece and with a further preface written by Tauchnitz himself.  This refers to the necessity of including in the series a volume, which ‘contains the results of an essential portion of the intellectual life of a Prince whose memory is honoured not only in England, but in every civilised country of the Globe, and above all in Germany, the land of his birth’.  The wrappers of the original paperback edition were marked with the royal insignia.

Tauchnitz 850 title page

It seems unlikely that the book was a bestseller in continental Europe.   A relatively small number of copies are found in the main library collections, in comparison to other volumes from the same period.  They do though include a copy in Cornell University with wrappers dated August 1884, so it was clearly still selling some copies at that time.

In 1868, Victoria too became a published author in the UK when extracts from her journal were published by Smith, Elder & Co. under the title ‘Leaves from the Journal of our life in the Highlands’.  This covered her visits to Scotland with Prince Albert from 1848 to 1860.  ‘Our life’ here seems to mean both Victoria and Albert, rather than the royal we.   Publication in a Tauchnitz Edition did not immediately follow, although it’s hard to say whether this was because Tauchnitz could not obtain the rights, or because he did not want them.

But then in 1884, when Smith Elder brought out a second selection called ‘More leaves from the journal of a life in the Highlands …’, Tauchnitz was able to secure rights to both this and the earlier book.  In the second book, the extracts cover the period after Albert’s death, from 1862 to 1882 and the title refers to ‘a life’ rather than ‘our life’.   This later book is volume number 2228 in the Tauchnitz series and in paperback copies the rear wrapper is dated February 1884.  The earlier book is volume 2227, but was published by Tauchnitz about two weeks later and the rear wrapper is dated March 1884.  For both volumes, the first printing is distinguished in bound copies by having nothing on the back of the half-title at the front of the book.  Later reprints of each have a reference to the other book on the half-title verso.

Oddly neither book shows Queen Victoria’s name as the author.  No-one can have been in any doubt as to whose journal this was, so this must have been some obscure point of royal protocol, rather than an attempt to disguise the true author.  The first volume is dedicated to Albert, again without mentioning him by name, while the second is dedicated to ‘my devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown’ and is signed by Victoria.

Tauchnitz 2228 Dedication

To complete the picture, it should be noted that two of Victoria and Albert’s daughters were also honoured as Tauchnitz authors.  ‘Letters to her Majesty the Queen’ by Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse, appeared in 1885 as volumes 2348 and 2349 of the series.  Alice was Victoria’s second daughter, who had married a German prince and gone to live in Darmstadt.  Her marriage and departure came just after her father’s death and she wrote home regularly to her widowed mother, careful not to appear too happy.  In 1877, her husband became the Grand Duke of Hesse, but Alice died the following year. As well as Alice’s letters, the book contains a 75 page memoir written by her sister Helena, who had married another German prince.

Tauchnitz 2348 Title Page