Monthly Archives: July 2018

The peace of Godolphin

It was Charles Dickens who quickly became the star writer of the Tauchnitz Collection of British Authors, but when the series launched in 1841, Dickens was only 29 years old and had published relatively few works.  He had already written ‘The Pickwick Papers’, ‘Oliver Twist’ and ‘Nicholas Nickleby’ all of which appeared early on in the Tauchnitz series, and he was at work on ‘Master Humphrey’s Clock’.   These on their own were more than enough to cement his reputation in literary terms, but in terms of quantity, they were not enough to sustain the new series.

That task fell instead in large part to Edward Bulwer Lytton, perhaps the most popular writer of the 1830s, filling the gap between Walter Scott and Dickens.  His reputation has not survived in the same way, but in his time he was seen as a master storyteller (before Dickens came along to redefine the term).  Bulwer Lytton’s books were widely pirated in continental Europe, and in publishing them in his new series, Tauchnitz was following in the footsteps of several other publishers.  It was a natural way to keep the series going, while he prepared his revolutionary plans to pay authors for permission to publish authorised editions of their latest works.

Tauchnitz 1 frontispiece

Frontispiece from the Tauchnitz Edition of ‘Pelham’

Three of the first ten volumes in the Tauchnitz series were by Bulwer Lytton, including ‘Pelham’ as volume 1.  By volume 25, he accounted for 12 volumes and by the time the series moved away from piracy to publishing editions sanctioned by the author, the tally had increased to 15 volumes.  Almost all of Bulwer’s previous works had by then appeared, and later works appeared in authorised editions as they were written, over the next 30 years.

As the author most ‘pirated’ in the early years of the series, Bulwer might reasonably have borne Tauchnitz some ill will, but this seems not to have been the case.  The grand gesture Tauchnitz made in offering to pay for authorisation, when there was no legal requirement to do so, seems to have silenced all his critics and established his reputation as a man of principle from then on.

In that rush of early pirate editions, one book that stands out is ‘Godolphin and Falkland’, which appeared as volume 23 of the series in 1842.  It combines two works – ‘Godolphin’, a satirical novel from 1833, and ‘Falkland’, a shorter work written in the form of a series of letters.

Tauchnitz 23 half-title

Very unusually for Tauchnitz, the first printing is marked by a major printing error on the title page, where the title is shown as ‘Codolphin and Falkland’.  As it is written correctly on the front wrappers and half-title, on the fly-title which follows the main title page, and throughout the novel, this seems to be a simple error in typesetting and proofreading.  Such errors are rare though in Tauchnitz Editions and no doubt this one caused a good deal of distress to Dr. Fluegel, who according to the wrappers was responsible for ‘the corrections of the press’.  It reminds me of the error allegedly committed by a priest saying Grace who referred to ‘the piece of Cod that passeth all understanding’.

Tauchnitz 23 Title page

The title page was corrected in later printings, but all early copies seem to have this misprint.  Corrected copies appear only with the more modern typeface adopted in 1848, and are marked as copyright editions, so misprinted copies continued to be sold for around six years.   It’s hard to imagine such a fundamental error being allowed to continue for so long these days.  If nothing else, the author would surely insist on the book being withdrawn and pulped, but as this was initially a pirate edition, the author had no say.

Tauchnitz 23 Bound in paperback

Any copy of the book with the misprint is from those first 6 years, but as usual with Tauchnitz, the only way of being sure that a copy is a first printing, is if the original wrappers are still present.  Tauchnitz bibliographers Todd & Bowden were unable to find any copy in original wrappers earlier than 1875, which hardly helps us.  But the copy in my own collection is in a makeshift binding for the Jens & Gassmann circulating library in Solothurn, Switzerland, matching the similar copy of ‘Martin Chuzzlewit’, that I believe could be the earliest copy of this novel in book form anywhere in the world.

In particular, although these volumes are privately bound, the original paper wrappers are bound in, and provide the evidence for precise dating.   In the case of ‘Godolphin and Falkland’, the rear wrapper lists just the first 25 volumes in the series, which makes it almost certainly the earliest wrapper, and the book therefore a first printing.

Tauchnitz 23 Rear Wrapper

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Gulliver in wartime

In wartime, everyone had to be satisfied with less and that included the youngest.  While books for adults were in short supply and had to be crammed onto as little paper as possible, books for young children, which were already small, had to be made even smaller.  As Gulliver Books put it, “On all sides there must be economy.  When victory is obtained we shall again have a plentiful supply of famous works in popular editions.  In the meantime …”.

Gulliver Little Books 12 Blue

And in the meantime, they produced books so small they would fit easily into a wallet, perhaps into a credit card slot if such things had then existed, or more likely at the time into a cigarette packet.  They are sometimes referred to as ‘air raid shelter’ books, produced to distract children from the noise and the terror of air raids.  But they are so small that (for an adult) they barely take ten minutes to read, which wouldn’t have provided much distraction during the long hours that were often spent in shelters.

In design terms the Gulliver Little Books look remarkably like miniature Penguins, using the same tripartite layout with a broad horizontal white title panel between two blocks of colour above and below.  The series title in the top block and the logo in the bottom block also follow the Penguin model, with a picture of Gulliver replacing the Penguin, and a shield for the series title rather than Penguin’s odd shaped blob.  The similarity is of course deliberate, with Penguin the leading paperback publisher at the time, and the one that carried an air of prestige and sophistication.

Gulliver Little Books 5 Multiple Colours

Unlike Penguin though (and Albatross before them), the colours have no apparent meaning.  The same book may be found in a range of different coloured covers.   There are so many variations that this looks to me to have been a deliberate policy from the start, rather than a case of books being reprinted later in whatever colour card was to hand.

Gulliver Little Books 19 Yellow

The Gulliver Book company was based in Lower Chelston in Devon, a suburb of Torquay, not normally known as a centre of book publishing.  I know little of the history of the business, but it seems to have specialised in small scale reprints of classic children’s books.  Its paper usage may have been quite low before the war, so that when paper rationing came in, its quota would have been correspondingly low, perhaps leaving it little choice but to opt for miniature books.

It had competitors in the market for miniature books for children at the time.  These included the ‘Mighty Midgets’ series, published by W. Barton, and the ‘Pocket Wonder Library’ published by PM (Productions) Ltd.  I suspect both of these were very small scale publishers as well, so this may have been a bit of a cottage industry in wartime.

The Gulliver Little Books series eventually included a total of 36 books, starting with an abridged version of ‘A midsummer night’s dream’ from Lamb’s ‘Tales from Shakespeare’.  Like many of the books, it is not an easy read for a child.  Charles and Mary Lamb, writing in 1807, wrote in a style that is more convoluted than any children’s author would use today.  The plot of ‘A midsummer night’s dream’ is complicated anyway and abridging makes it even more so.  It would have to be a fairly bright young reader who was reading and making sense of this on his or her own.

Gulliver Little Books 1 Green

The books are very different from the kind of thing that Penguin was publishing for children at the same time in its new Puffin imprint.  They are all classic stories from a previous generation, and written in the style of a previous generation.  This was not a company doing much to support new writers through the payment of royalties.   It looks to me as if all or almost all of their books would have been out of copyright.

How much did they cost?  There is no price on them, and given that typical paperbacks were selling for sixpence before the war (ninepence by the end of it), it’s hard to imagine that these tiny books can have cost more than one or two pence.  Paper costs would have been low and author payments possibly non-existent.   I’ve seen it suggested though that the similar (if slightly more luxurious) ‘Mighty Midgets’ series, sold for threepence a copy.  Could prices of the Gulliver Little Books have reached these dizzy heights?

There is no date on them either, although they were clearly published sometime between 1939 and 1945.  As well as appearing in multiple colours, they also exist in two different formats.  Most copies, particularly the earlier ones, are produced in four ‘gatherings’ of 8 pages each, stapled across the spine.  Later printings are in a single gathering stapled through the spine.  The difference can be seen in the picture above of different printings of the Charles Dickens book, and in the example below of a later printing.

Gulliver Little Books 36 orange

My best guess is that books in the earlier format might be from around 1942 /43 and the later format more like 1945, but this is only a guess.   Presumably the series then came to a natural end at the end of the war.  I doubt they were much mourned.