Aldous Huxley in Tauchnitz and Albatross – Part 2
Posted by jojoal
In 1934 Tauchnitz was on the point of collapse. Its brash new rival, Albatross, had succeeded far beyond its expectations and had stripped Tauchnitz of its sales, its authors and its prestige. Tauchnitz was ready to admit defeat and to agree to being bought by Albatross, but one thing stood in the way. The National Socialists, the Nazis, had just come to power in Germany, and Albatross was a company with multiple Jewish connections. In the political climate of the time, such a transaction was impossible.
Instead a complicated arrangement was put in place where Tauchnitz was bought by Brandstetter, the German printing firm that printed Albatross books. Brandstetter passed editorial control to Albatross, but kept the printing work for itself. From 1934, editorial control of both series was handled from Paris by Albatross.
With Huxley and various other writers though, they had a problem. Their books were being burned by the Nazis and were appearing on various lists of banned books. Albatross / Tauchnitz had to tread carefully along a narrow line if they were to survive at all in Germany. They had to exercise some self-censorship not only in terms of what they published, but how they published it and where they sold it. The story is told in some detail and in very entertaining form in Michele Troy’s new book ‘Strange Bird. The Albatross Press and the Third Reich’.
On the face of it, it made little difference whether books were published by Albatross or by Tauchnitz. Editorial control of both series was from the same office in Paris, the books of both series were printed at the same printer in Leipzig, and they were distributed by the same distributor in Hamburg. But the evidence of the books suggests a different story. Tauchnitz after all was a German firm, with a higher proportion of its sales in Germany, and had to be extremely careful about publishing writers that were not approved of by the German government. Albatross, although coming under considerable German control, seemed to be allowed a little more freedom. Its books, printed in Germany, but sold across Europe, earned valuable foreign currency for Germany and the Nazis were prepared to be a bit more tolerant.
But it seems clear that Huxley was no longer to be tolerated as a Tauchnitz author. He had moved to Albatross anyway for new publications, but even works for which Tauchnitz already had the rights were not reprinted. The Tauchnitz bibliography records reprint dates for the six Huxley volumes in Tauchnitz editions. Each was reprinted several times, but none of them after the end of 1934. A similar pattern exists for D.H. Lawrence and other writers not approved of by the Nazis.
Instead Huxley’s books were transferred across to the Albatross series. The two volumes of short stories, ‘Two or three graces’ and ‘Brief candles’ were reprinted in 1935 as Albatross volumes 246 and 247, followed shortly afterwards by ‘Music at night and other essays’ as volume 260. ‘Point Counter Point’ appeared in April 1937 as volumes 331 and 332.
Two volume, or even three volume novels had been a long tradition for Tauchnitz, although gradually dropping out of favour by the 1930s. For Albatross, they were almost unheard of. Longer novels appeared, not in two volumes, but in a larger ‘extra volume’ sold at a higher price. Presumably they could have done that with ‘Point Counter Point’, but, perhaps for contractual reasons, they chose to retain the Tauchnitz two volume format. Unlike Tauchnitz though, they offered the two volumes for sale together in a slipcase.
This transfer of Huxley’s books across to Albatross was probably made necessary by implicit censorship, but it made some sense anyway for editorial reasons. Albatross had been the more modern, edgier series, and Tauchnitz the more traditional, conservative one, even before the takeover. With new books still being added to both series, there had to be some basis for deciding which books appeared in which series and Huxley fitted better into Albatross. The opportunity to develop a ‘collected edition’ of Huxley’s works in Albatross may have been too good to miss.
On the other hand, shifting books from one series to the other could also have a financial impact. The two firms had different ownership structures, so profits from the books could end up in a different place. The Tauchnitz bibliographers, Todd & Bowden, accused the Albatross managers, particularly John Holroyd-Reece, of systematically transferring profits away from Tauchnitz, to the detriment of the new owners, Brandstetter.
This is probably unfair, and seems to take no account of the difficult circumstances in Germany at the time. Whether the various dealings were fair to Brandstetter or not, depends upon the basis on which they went into the arrangement, what the ongoing financial arrangements were, and also on what was politically possible in 1930s Germany. They did after all buy Tauchnitz at a time when, without the support of Albatross, it had little future or value at all. It is likely that Brandstetter’s financial interest came more from printing the books of both firms than from the profits of publishing. But the details of the arrangements were to be of vital importance later when war came to separate the firms.
There was still the question of whether any further new works of Huxley’s could be published. ‘Beyond the Mexique Bay’, appeared in Britain in 1934, nominally a record of Huxley’s travels in Mexico and Central America, but also including long sections that were critical of fascism and offensive to the German government. It could not appear in translation in Germany but it might be more tolerated in English. It did appear in 1935, as Albatross volume 269, but only after considerable self-censorship by the Albatross editors – “die Schere im Kopf”, or the scissors in your own head, as described by Michele Troy’s book. Even then it’s an open question as to how openly it could be sold in Germany as opposed to other European countries.
It was followed by ‘The olive tree and other essays’ in August 1937 (volume 336) and then by ‘Eyeless in Gaza’ in January 1938 as volume 358. Finally in July 1939, only a few weeks before the outbreak of war, came ‘Along the Road’, another collection of essays, originally published in Britain as early as 1925, so another example of catching up with Huxley’s earlier works.
In total then, 14 Huxley volumes in Albatross, five of them transferred across from Tauchnitz (and one more that never transferred), covering almost all his pre-war novels and short stories, as well as a representative selection of his essays and travel writing. In the end only D.H. Lawrence accounted for more volumes in the series, although Agatha Christie was level on fourteen. For a series that was printed in Germany in the 1930s and a writer whose books were burned and appeared on banned lists, that was quite an achievement.