Asher’s to Ashes
My first post on Asher’s Collection of English Authors covered the period from launch in 1872 through to 1874 when the publisher’s name changed from A. Asher & Co. to Albert Cohn. It was a story of early success, tempting large numbers of authors away from Tauchnitz, followed by a gentle pulling back as the harsh economic realities started to bite. It was never going to be easy competing against Tauchnitz with its massively entrenched position. Asher had a good go at it, but sales were probably not high enough to justify the high advances paid to authors to convince them to switch.
I can only guess at the financial position of Asher, but a record of around 50 volumes in 1872, 37 volumes in 1873 and 12 in 1874 tells its own story. And the fact that the firm was divided and part of it sold off in 1874 suggests there may have been financial pressures. A small number of books in late 1874 appeared under the name of Albert Cohn as publisher (Cohn was the owner of A. Asher & Co.) and then there was another change.
Over the next few years, volumes of ‘Asher’s Collection of English Authors’ appeared under two different publisher’s names – Julius Engelmann in Berlin and Paul Ollendorff in Paris. I can’t tie down exact dates for either of them, but I suspect Engelmann came first, taking the series on from volume 99, possibly the last volume published by Albert Cohn in 1874, to around volume 120 in 1877. There seem also to be volumes in this same number range with Ollendorff’s name as publisher, dated 1875 or 1876, but these may be later reprints, still showing the original date. Or possibly both publishers collaborated, contributing different titles to the series.
Half-title and Title page of volume 109, published by Julius Engelmann
Ollendorff’s involvement with the series also seems to have largely ended in 1877. Volume 123 in 1877 (‘Eugénie’ by Beatrice May Butt) appears with his name on, as does a single later novel, ‘Proud Maisie’ by Bertha Thomas, published as volume 133 and 134 in 1878. Possibly this was a hangover, already in the pipeline before the series moved on to another publisher. There seem to be only a handful of new volumes published under Ollendorff’s imprint, together with reprints of some earlier volumes. Although he went on to build a substantial publishing business, in 1877 Paul Ollendorff was just 26 and at the start of his publishing career.
Whatever the exact history of the series in this period, it seems unlikely that it was a major threat to Tauchnitz. A total of around 30 volumes between the two publishers over three and a half years would have made little difference to Tauchnitz’s output of nearer 300 volumes over the same period. But Baron Tauchnitz would no doubt still have been disappointed to see occasional titles appearing by novelists that he had published regularly in his own series – Anthony Trollope and Mary Braddon among them.
A greater threat was to come when Asher’s Collection acquired yet another new owner. The first appearance of the name Karl Grädener on the title page of a newly published volume seems to have been around volume 124 in 1877, although reprints of earlier volumes are again a complicating factor that makes it difficult to be precise. Certainly Grädener added several volumes to the series in late 1877 and 1888, before striking off in a slightly different direction in 1879.
Up to early 1879, all volumes appeared under the series title ‘Asher’s Collection of English Authors’ and followed a consistent numbering sequence from 1 up to around 150. From around this point though a new numbering sequence starts again at 1 and a new series name makes its appearance. The series is now referred to as ‘Asher’s Continental Library’ on the half-titles, although oddly the front wrapper still refers to the old series title. It’s also slightly odd that the half-titles refer to a series ‘in one-shilling volumes’. The books could not be sold in Britain or the British Empire, so a price in shillings is of little relevance, and the German price of 1.50 Marks corresponded then I think to one shilling and sixpence.
The new series grew quite rapidly over the next two to three years, but confusingly, novels that had already appeared in the original series, were now reprinted with different numbers. So ‘Erema’ by R.D. Blackmore, having been first published as volumes 130 to 132 of ‘Asher’s Collection’ in 1878, then appeared as volumes 22 to 24 of the new ‘Asher’s Continental Library’. It was followed as volumes 25 to 27 of the ‘Continental Library’ by a reprint of ‘Comin’ through the rye’ by Helen Mathers, which had previously been issued as volumes 105 to 107 of the original series, during Engelmann’s time in charge.
Grädener was still trying to tempt authors away from Tauchnitz. On 4 October 1880, Macmillan, the British publisher of Henry James, wrote to him that ‘One Grädener of Hamburg who publishes “Ashers Collection of English Authors” has written to say that he would like to buy the right to print ‘The portrait of a lady’. I fancy however that your books are published by Tauchnitz and will tell him so if you like. I hope the Baron pays you well …’. James did feel that he was better off with Tauchnitz and was one of those to stay loyal.
It looks as if the ‘Continental Library’ (later described as ‘Asher’s Continental Library of Favourite Modern Authors’) got up to about 55 volumes through a mixture of new publications and reprints by early 1881, before the emphasis switched back again to the original series name and numbering. This change seems roughly to coincide with yet another change in the name of the publisher for the series. The name of Karl Grädener is replaced in 1881 with Grädener & Richter, apparently because of a merger of the two firms.
Was it Richter who killed off the ‘Continental Library’ and proposed going back to ‘Asher’s Collection of English Authors’? Anyway that seems to be what happened. Numbers between 149 and 158 were allocated for 10 volumes of Shakespeare plays, which may have been published over a period of several years, and the original series got going again from volume 159 in 1881. Around 20 volumes were added in 1881 and another 20 or so in 1882, but 1883 saw over 40 new volumes.
The authors in that year included not only Anthony Trollope and Robert Louis Stevenson, but a string of other authors previously published by Tauchnitz, including James Payn, Bret Harte, William Black, W.E. Norris, Emma Marshall and Mrs. Alexander. Clearly Tauchnitz was again in a fight, at risk of losing both authors and sales, but as in the early years of Asher’s Collection, it held firm. It was to be Grädener & Richter that blinked first.
1884 saw a reduction to just under 20 volumes and for 1885 there was just a single 2 volume novel. Occasional volumes continued to be added for another 6 or 7 years, and there were still two more changes of publisher name to come, first to just J.F. Richter and then to Verlagsanstalt und Druckerei (vormals J.F. Richter). Over the 20 year history of the Asher’s Collection it had appeared under at least 8 different publisher imprints.
Both in the early years from 1872 to 1874 under A. Asher & Co. and then again around 1883 under Grädener & Richter, it had seriously challenged the dominance of Tauchnitz, without ever quite managing to dethrone it.
Posted on April 22, 2016, in Vintage Paperbacks and tagged A. Asher & Co., Asher's Collection, Grädener & Richter, Henry James, J.F. Richter, Julius Engelmann, Karl Grädener, Paul Ollendorff, Tauchnitz. Bookmark the permalink. 4 Comments.