Martin Chuzzlewit – the Gassmann cometh
Charles Dickens played a key part in the publishing history of Tauchnitz. The Pickwick Papers was published as volumes 2 and 3 of the Tauchnitz series that eventually ran to over 5000 volumes, and Dickens was one of the first authors to agree to the Tauchnitz proposal of voluntary payment in return for authorisation, in the days before copyright. Almost all the works of Dickens were published in the Tauchnitz series, including 47 volumes of stories reprinted from ‘Household Words’, the magazine edited by Dickens. The two men enjoyed a close friendship, and a long correspondence.
But Tauchnitz also played a key part in the publishing history of Dickens. After that landmark agreement on authorisation, Dickens or his publishers would supply Tauchnitz with early copies of the text of his novels, in the form of proof sheets or part-issues. Tauchnitz was able to bring out a continental edition almost simultaneously with the UK edition, or sometimes even earlier, so that in some cases the Tauchnitz edition is the worldwide first edition in book form. Nobody quite know how many of the Dickens novels this applies to. It needs book historians to carry out a lot more detective work yet. But certainly one example is ‘Martin Chuzzlewit’, the first of Dickens’ novels to be published in an authorised edition by Tauchnitz.
The agreement had come in 1843, after Tauchnitz had already published 7 unauthorised volumes by Dickens, including ‘Oliver Twist’ and ‘Nicholas Nickleby’ as well as ‘The Pickwick Papers’. The publication of ‘Martin Chuzzlewit’ had already started in monthly instalments in the UK and would continue through to July 1844 before a complete edition of the novel in book form was published. But by December 1843, in return for payment of £5 10s, Dickens was able to issue the first volume of the book, covering chapters 1 to 25 (almost the first 10 parts). This volume appeared 6 or 7 months ahead of any publication in book form in the UK. The second volume of the book appeared in the Tauchnitz edition in July 1844, almost at the same time as the UK edition.
Like all Tauchnitz editions, it was published as a paperback, but the tradition on the continent was that many of the buyers would have the books privately bound by a book-binder. It is very rare for early editions to survive in paperback form, but easier to find copies in a variety of private bindings. Unfortunately most bookbinders would discard the paper covers, and often the half-title as well, which provided the only reliable evidence to identify first printings. So many of the remaining copies of ‘Martin Chuzzlewit’ in the Tauchnitz Edition cannot be reliably identified as being from that very first printing in 1843/1844.
Certainly if the publisher’s name on the title page is shown as ‘Bernhard Tauchnitz’ rather than ‘Bernh. Tauchnitz Jun.’, it is not a first printing, and comes from 1852 or later. If the title page refers to ‘Copyright edition’ rather than ‘Edition sanctioned by the author’, again it cannot be a first printing and comes at the earliest from 1846, when the first copyright treaty between Britain and Germany came into force. So first printings must show ‘Bernh. Tauchnitz Jun.’ and ‘sanctioned by the author’ on the title page. But there is no way at present of telling whether more than one early printing share these features, so the only way of being absolutely sure that a book is a first printing, is if the original paperback covers survive.
Fortunately there is at least one copy where they have survived, and it’s a rather unusual copy. It seems to have been acquired by a circulating library in the town of Solothurn in Northern Switzerland, effectively a small business that acquired books and lent them out for a fee. The German term is ‘Journalzirkel und Leih-bibliothek’, which seems to suggest that it circulated journals or magazines as well as lending books – almost a cross between a library and a reading group. The books are in a rough binding and the first volume has their bookplate inside the front cover. Crucially it also has the original paper covers bound in. The back cover shows a list of the other books printed in the Tauchnitz Edition, and includes only those books printed before December 1843. The reference to ‘Martin Chuzzlewit’ in the list mentions only volume 1 as having been printed. The similar list on the back of volume 2 refers naturally to both volumes and also includes a further 5 volumes printed between December 1843 and July 1844. This looks to me like fairly conclusive evidence that both volumes are from the earliest printing, and in particular that volume 1 pre-dates any UK edition other than the monthly parts, and any other edition in book form anywhere in the world.
The back covers of both volumes – more titles listed on volume 2
Volume 2 does not have the library bookplate, although it does have the same binding and the library number on the cover. Instead it has an ex-libris bookplate for ‘Valentin Nueschi’, who presumably acquired the book from the library when they no longer wanted it. Circulating libraries had to be responsive to consumer preferences, acquiring the latest novels and selling on those that were seeing less demand.
The firm that ran the library, Jent & Gassmann, seems also to have been a small publishing firm and linked to the printing and publishing firm of Gassmann, founded in Solothurn in 1780, and still existing today, now run by the 7th generation of the Gassmann family. They are presumably proud of their family’s history, but may not be aware of the small but significant part they played in the publishing history of Charles Dickens.